Psychology and homosexuality
Homosexuality is simply the preference for people of the same sex, as stimulation and to exercise sexual function. Now, what is the conflict with this situation? Why does society see this handling of sexuality as abnormal or unnatural? In the first place, we must remember that everything that is not common, accepted by the majority, is established as abnormal. Homosexuality was taken out of medical manuals as a disease since the early 1980s; However, today, at the beginning of the 21st century, a series of errors of concept persist, which persist a mistaken view of this sexual orientation.
Homosexuality is a controversial way of life, vetoed by society that, in large part, sees it as an "aberration", as a "disease". There are a lot of misconceptions that have persisted for centuries in our society and that maintain a wrong view of homosexuality, such as: perversion, sin, contagion, punishment of God, ways of speaking, dressing and behaving " different ", among many others. There are theories that try to explain the origins of homosexuality, but -as such- have not yet been proven to try to explain their origin, although homosexuality is established, mostly, as a sexual pattern.
All people present the unit situation / sexual stimulus-sexual response, that is, they have the biological capacity to respond to a stimulus and are handled within a physiological variant: the ability of the organism to discriminate and decide which sexual stimulus they want to respond to. The sexual pattern can be hetero, homo or bisexual, and has periods of formation ranging from birth to 20-21 years, when the process is completed. Thus, we talk about experiences or tendencies towards one or another sexual pattern.
The lack of sexual education (or misinformation) maintains in society a negative view towards non-heterosexual patterns, which becomes one of the reasons why people with bi or homosexual orientations decide to "stay in the closet" ", In fear of being rejected by family, friends and colleagues / bosses. This isolation, of course, leads only to major conflicts in individuals. In this regard, the global society of the 21st century still faces major challenges, such as same-sex marriage and the right to motherhood / fatherhood.
Since time immemorial, there has been talk of homosexuality, of its presence in the world; it has been questioned whether or not it is a pathology, if it constitutes a negative influence; as well as its visualization as "aberration of humanity", among other things. However, despite all the stigmas, it is undeniable that great personalities of history have been homosexual: Alexander the Great, the philosophers of ancient Greece (where the relationship was perfectly sanctioned, under certain criteria, between the teacher and the disciple), Leonardo da Vinci, among many others.
Of the 538 respondents with completed interviews, 45.9% were male and 54.1% were female. Racially, the sample was 81% White, 10.4% Black, 5% Hispanic, and 2.8% Asian (less than 1% of respondents did not use one of these labels). The mean age was 43.8 years (sd = 15.97); median annual household income was between $30,000 and $40,000; and the median level of educational attainment was “some college.” Slightly more than one-third of the respondents (35.3%) labelled themselves Democrats; 31.6% were Republicans; 24.5% were Independents. The analyses reported below were restricted to self-identified heterosexuals (n = 505, or 93.9% of the sample).
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Attitudes Toward Gay Men
Most respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men, with a majority agreeing that “Sex between two men is just plain wrong” and that “I think male homosexuals are disgusting” (69.8% and 54.1%, respectively, agreed). Only 23.6% agreed that “Male homosexuality is a natural expression of sexuality in men.” The overall mean score for the 3-item ATG scale was 9.08 (sd = 2.71); the range was from 3 (extremely favorable attitudes) to 12 (extremely hostile attitudes)
Interpersonal Contact. Almost one-third of the sample (31.3%) reported that they knew at least one person who is gay or lesbian. Within this subgroup, roughly one-third knew one gay person whereas twothirds knew two or more. Both male and female respondents were more likely to report that their closest relationships were with gay men than with lesbians.6
Of the 263 reported relationships (with 55 respondents describing one relationship and 104 describing two), only 27% were with a lesbian. Shifting the unit of analysis from the relationship to the respondent, only 34% of those who knew one or more gay people described at least one relationship with a lesbian.7
Female respondents were more likely than males to know a gay person (of those who knew any gay people, 67% were women; chisquare = 18.309, p < .001).8
The origin of homosexuality
Homosexuality is not a disease. So far, there are only theories about its origin. On the other hand, it is unobjectionable that it is one of the different sexual patterns, being on a par with heterosexual and bisexual. Basically, there are three theories that try to explain the origin of homosexuality: biological, psychological and mixed.
The biological one is based on:
- The possible existence of alterations at the level of structures in the brain that would lead to presenting this behavior.
- The existence of a gene that produces homosexuality.
- The alteration of the hormonal action in the process of formation of the fetus.
The psychological one points out that:
- Through learning, the person copies behaviors, either due to situations or social conditions (such as being the only male child in a women's environment and lacking a male model, or due to repeated sexual abuse).
The mixed, assumes that:
- There is a biological predisposition and, in addition, social conditions contribute to its presence.
However, until now, none of these theories has been proven true, so there is no tangible and univocal cause. Thus, homosexuality is simply managed as one of the existing sexual patterns: heterosexual, bisexual and homosexual.
The physiological variant
It is the necessary condition of the organism that allows the functioning of the processes of sex differentiation and activation of the S / Es-Rs unit. In other words, it is the necessary and innate condition of the organism that allows it to function within a certain range. This criterion allows to establish if the functioning of the organism is preserved or not through the observation and analysis of the components of the activation process of the S / Es-Rs unit.
The physiological variant presents a range with observable and measurable parameters in terms of intensity, latency, magnitude and continuity, which allows to determine objectively if a situation or behavior is physiological or pathological, according to the location within a certain range. It could be said, from the practical point of view, that the physiological variant has two bars, one superior and one inferior; the individual can be handled within the range of the bars, but can also leave that range, presenting two possibilities:
- The pathology: when an individual leaves the range, either superior (excess) or inferior (defect) and is fixed to that situation or behavior. That is, when the only way for the person to become sexually active is through that situation. For example, pedophilia or zoophilia, in which case the individual is only sexually active, only and exclusively, with children and animals, respectively, and can not exercise any other sexual activity.
- The experience: when an individual leaves the upper or lower range, but does not fixate on said situation, being able to return to the range of variability without any difficulty. This experience can be unique or repeated sporadically, and from an experience it can be turned into a pathology; everything will depend on the handling of the variant and the sexual information that the individual has.
There is a process of training in the individual that allows discrimination and information processing to establish their sexual pattern. Thus, it is necessary to establish sex education programs, which should be taught from six years of age, which would allow children and adolescents to understand the changes and differences in relation to their sexuality and that of others, their anatomical differences, the functioning of such structures, the "for what" of the exercise of sexual function, secondary sexual characteristics, the process to establish the sexual pattern, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and contraception, among others.
Likewise, the creation of sexuality programs for parents should be considered, designed to facilitate their understanding and relationship with their children, with others and, often, with themselves.
This process of education is essential to achieve coexistence without discrimination, accepting that heterosexuality is not the only sexual option or, necessarily, the most "adequate".
Finally, it is essential to strengthen respect for the other: it is perfectly possible for people with different sexual patterns to establish bonds of social coexistence, friendship and solidarity, understanding and accepting each other's sexual pattern, without trying to intervene in it, to change it; that is, to consolidate mutual respect.